The Constitution never barred women either from voting or from holding federal office. It was left up to the states to write laws allowing or not allowing women to vote. Click this link to read how New Jersery allowed Women Suffrage 1776 to 1807 (Click this to download the same article in pdf).
The words "No" and "Not" are used 24 times in the Articles of the Constitution and 22 more times in the Bill of Rights as words of restraint limiting the Federal governments power over the States and over the individual citizen. Click here for a link to the Consitution. (Click here to download a pdf of the Constitution)