• Here is where you can find grammar we have learned or reviewed in our classroom.  I hope these tips and hints will help you increase your English grammar confidence.

    Take the link for a helpful grammar website:  Grammar Bytes.  Choose the area you wish to work on and link to the activities, exercises and other tools available on this website.

    Parts of Speech:  Noun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb, Preposition, Conjuction, Interjection

    Parts of Speech Grammar Chart


    Adjective Clause:

    • A group of words that are in a sentence giving us more information about a noun
    • NOT a complete sentence, subject and verb act as the adjective in the clause
    • describes a noun that comes before the clause using relative pronouns (or clue words)
      • Scroll down to Relative Pronouns
    • Example: My mom is the person who has influenced me the most in my life.
    • Link for more detailed notes: Adjective Clauses  

      Adjective Questions:

    • Comparative or Superlative adjectives
    • Pattern = question word + subject (noun) + verb + adjective and/or noun?
    • Choose the correct verb tense:
      • "to be" verb if there is only an adjective
      • "have" verb if there is an adjective + noun
      • Choose correct tense based on your subject (plural or singular)
    • Example:  Which houses __________ yards? "to be" or "have" base verb?
    • Example:  Which place __________ closer to your job? "to be" or "have" base verb?
    • See attached notes to find out the correct answer!  Adjective Question format

    Auxiliary Verbs:

    Be / Do / Have: Form changes based on tense (past, present, future)

    Modals: can/could/may/might/must/should/would/will (form does not change)

    Take the link to review these verbs: https://www.chompchomp.com/terms/auxiliaryverb.htm 

    Conjugating Verbs:



    • English speakers (especially American English speakers) use contractions in their conversations!
    • A contraction happens when two words are used to create one word, using an apostrophe.
    • A few examples: I am becomes I'm, she is becomes she's, will not becomes won't
    • Take the link to view a short list of the most common contractions: Contractions in English (this document will download and you will need to open it in a new file)

    Contrary-to-fact Conditional Structure Patterns:


    Direct vs. Indirect Speech Patterns:

    Direct and Indirect Objects:

    • The direct object of a verb is the thing receiving the action.  To find the direct object ask: who or what is receivng the action?
    • Example: My cat caught a mouse!  
      • Subject = cat
      • Verb = caught
      • Who or what received the action?
      • Direct Object = mouse
    • The indirect object is the receipent of the direct object.  There must be a direct object to have an indirect object.
    • First find the direct object and then ask who for/to or what for/to?
    • Example: My cat caught a mouse for her kitten.  
      • Subject = cat
      • Verb = caught
      • Direct Object = mouse
      • Indirect Object = kitten
    • Take the link for the video: Direct & Indirect Objects 

    Me or I:

    When to use "I" or "me" in a sentence can be challenging. The easiest way to decide it to consider the position of the word in the sentence.

    "I" is used before the verb.

    "me" is almost always used after the verb.


    To finish our project Jun and I worked on Saturday.

    Grandpa asked my sister and me to buy soda at the store.

    Link to this Grammar Bytes exercise for some practice:  https://chompchomp.com/hotpotatoes/procase01.htm 

    Modal Verbs:

    • A type of auxiliary (or helping) verb that is used to express:
      • ability
      • possibility
      • permission
      • obligation
    • See the chart for specific verbs and examples: Modal Verbs Chart
      • This chart will download and you will need to open it in a new window.

    Passive Voice:

    Present Perfect Tense Patterns:

    PP Chart

    • Use Present Perfect when:
      • Something happened or didn't (did not) happen at an unspecified time in the past
      • Something happened more than once in the past and could possibly happen again in the future
      • Something started at a specific time in the past and continues in the present
    • Take the link to see the patterns for positive and negative sentences and Yes/No and Wh- type questions: Present Perfect Tense Patterns

    Present Perfect Continuous Tense Patterns:

    PPC Chart

    • Use Present Perfect Continuous when:
      • You want to emphasize the length on an activity or to tell that it started in the past and still continues in the present
      • You want to show that an activity has been in progress recently
    • Take the link to see the patterns for positive and negative sentences and Yes/No and Wh- type questions:  Present Perfect Continuous Tense
    • When to use "for" and "since" in present perfect tenses:  Using For and Since

    Pronouns (Subject and Object):

     Pronouns: Subject & Object


    Proofreading Marks Handout: Proofreading Marks


    Reading Strategies:


    Relative Pronouns:


    Used to Pattern:

    • Used to + a base verb is used to tell about a past habit or experience that is no longer true or has changed.
    • Used To Grammar Pattern

    Question Formats

    Embedded Questions

    • We use embedded questions to find out information about something we don't know or understand.
    • These are a polite way of getting information from someone.
    • Embedded questions are two questions in one.
      • Introductory question
      • Embedded question
    • Take the link to see the three basic patterns: Embedded Questions Patterns
    • Tag Questions

      Wh- Questions:

      • Wh- question words:
      • Who, What, Where, When, Why and How
      • Questions that begin with these words expect a detailed answer.

      Yes / No Questions:

      • Questions asked with the expectation of a "Yes" or "No" answer do not use "Wh-" format.
      • Questions that begin with "Do" or "Does" expect a short answer, with no detail.
      • See attached note on how to properly create a Yes/No question.  
      • Yes or No questions using Do or Does
      • Take the link for video review: Do or Does with Have questions